March 23, 2017
Facilitated by Paula Austin, Assistant Professor of History, Sacramento State University
The following materials were offered to participants after the class to supplement the group discussion. Video of this session is below.
- Capitalism (here’s a definition we’ve found useful to think about in relationship to what was offered during the session):
Capitalism is an economic system in which a small number of people maintain ownership and control of the machines, raw materials, people’s labor, and land needed to make goods (means of production) and the means of distributing and generating profit from those goods.
- Frederick Douglass—The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro (Referenced in Chapter 1, here’s the whole piece).
- We had a bit of discussion during the group about the relationship between race and class. Here’s an excerpt from a great piece by Robin D.G. Kelley on Cedric Robinson’s conception of racial capitalism:
So what did Robinson mean by “racial capitalism”? Building on the work of another forgotten black radical intellectual, sociologist Oliver Cox, Robinson challenged the Marxist idea that capitalism was a revolutionary negation of feudalism. Instead capitalism emerged within the feudal order and flowered in the cultural soil of a Western civilization already thoroughly infused with racialism. Capitalism and racism, in other words, did not break from the old order but rather evolved from it to produce a modern world system of “racial capitalism” dependent on slavery, violence, imperialism, and genocide. Capitalism was “racial” not because of some conspiracy to divide workers or justify slavery and dispossession, but because racialism had already permeated Western feudal society. The first European proletarians were racial subjects (Irish, Jews, Roma or Gypsies, Slavs, etc.) and they were victims of dispossession (enclosure), colonialism, and slavery within Europe. Indeed, Robinson suggested that racialization within Europe was very much a colonial process involving invasion, settlement, expropriation, and racial hierarchy. Insisting that modern European nationalism was completely bound up with racialist myths, he reminds us that the ideology of Herrenvolk (governance by an ethnic majority) that drove German colonization of central Europe and “Slavic” territories “explained the inevitability and the naturalness of the domination of some Europeans by other Europeans.” To acknowledge this is not to diminish anti-black racism or African slavery, but rather to recognize that capitalism was not the great modernizer giving birth to the European proletariat as a universal subject, and the “tendency of European civilization through capitalism was thus not to homogenize but to differentiate—to exaggerate regional, subcultural, and dialectical differences into ‘racial’ ones.”
- There was interest in learning more about Black socialists and communists who were contemporaries with WEB DuBois. Here’s a piece by one such contemporary, Claudia Jones.